Cryptographic Authentication

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Introduction

Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a form that only those it is intended for can read and process. It is a science of protecting information by encoding it into an unreadable format. Cryptography is an effective way of protecting sensitive information as it is stored on media or transmitted through network communication paths. Although the ultimate goal of cryptography, and the mechanisms that make it up, is to hide information from un-authorized individuals, most algorithms can be broken and the information can be revealed if the attacker has enough time, desire, and resources. So a more realistic goal of cryptography is to make obtaining the information too work-intensive to be worth it to the attacker.

The first encryption methods date back to 4,000 years ago and were considered more of an ancient art. As encryption evolved, it was mainly used to pass messages through hostile environments of war, crisis, and for negotiation processes between conflicting groups of people. Throughout history, individuals and governments have worked to protect communication by encrypting it. As time went on, the encryption algorithms and the devices that used them increased in complexity, new methods and algorithms were continually introduced, and it became an integrated part of the computing world.

Cryptography Definitions

  •  Algorithm Set of mathematical rules used in encryption and decryption
  • Cryptography Science of secret writing that enables you to store and transmit data in a form that is available only to the intended individuals
  • Cryptosystem Hardware or software implementation of cryptography that transforms a message to cipher text and back to plaintext
  • Cryptanalysis Practice of obtaining plaintext from cipher text without a key or breaking the the encryption
  • Cryptology The study of both cryptography and cryptanalysis
  • Cipher text Data in encrypted or unreadable format
  • Encipher Act of transforming data into an unreadable format
  • Decipher Act of transforming data into a readable format
  • Key Secret sequence of bits and instructions that governs the act of encryption and decryption

Conclusion

  1. User authentication can be handled using one or more different authentication methods. Some authentication methods such as plain password authentication are easily implemented but are in general weak and primitive.
  2. The fact that plain password authentication it is still by far the most widely used form of authentication, gives credence to the seriousness of the lack of security on both the Internet and within private networks
  3. Other methods of authentication, that may be more complex and require more time to implement and maintain, provide strong and reliable authentication (provided one keeps its secrets secret, i.e. private keys and phrases).

Creativity

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ABSTRACT

Creativity can be defined as the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. Creativity involves two processes: thinking, then producing. Innovation is the production or implementation of an idea. If you have ideas, but don’t act on them, you are imaginative but not creative. Creativity is a core competency for leaders and managers and one of the best ways to set your company apart from the competition. Corporate Creativity is characterized by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate solutions.

Generating fresh solutions to problems, and the ability to create new products, processes or services for a changing market, are part of the intellectual capital that give a company its competitive edge. Creativity is a crucial part of the innovation equation. In the organizational context, innovation may be linked to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency, productivity, quality, competitive positioning, market share, etc. All organizations can innovate, including for example hospitals, universities, and local governments. Innovation has been studied in a variety of contexts, including in relation to technology, commerce, social systems, economic development, and policy construction. There are, therefore, naturally a wide range of approaches to conceptualizing innovation in the scholarly literature.

INTRODUCTION

All innovation begins with creative ideas. Innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second. For innovation to occur, something more than the generation of a creative idea or insight is required, the insight must be put into action to make a genuine difference, resulting for example in new or altered business processes within the organization, or changes in the products and services provided. Creativity is the process of bringing something new into being. Creativity requires passion and commitment. Out of the creative act is born symbols and myths. It brings to our awareness what was previously hidden and points to new life. The experience is one of heightened consciousness-ecstasy.

Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby something new is created which has some kind of value. What counts as “new” may be in reference to the individual creator, or to the society or domain within which the novelty occurs. What counts as “valuable” is similarly defined in a variety of ways. Creativity is fostered in organizational cultures that value independent thinking, risk taking, and learning. They are tolerant of failure and they value diversity. Open communication, a high degree of trust and respect between individuals are crucial. Creativity leads in to innovation. The word creativity and innovation are interrelated. Innovation is a new way of doing something or new stuff that is made useful. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations

Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word “innovation” is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.Leaders who want to create an innovative business culture must understand the steps of the creative process, but that alone is not enough. To promote business innovation, executive leaders should commit certain business practices, and institutionalize them in the culture – by training managers in these practices and then doling out promotions and rewards to those who employ them successfully. Leaders who want to encourage business creativity must be sure also to build talent driven, positive cultures that place a value on learning.

Innovation is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method. Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services. Innovation typically involves creativity, but is not identical to it: innovation involves acting on the creative ideas to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs.

CorDECT Technology

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Abstract

Internet today is not just another means of communication. Those who use internet know that internet is power. It gives a user not only all kinds of information, but also enables him/her to do things one could not even dream of till recently. But at the same time, lack of internet access would put a person at a tremendous disadvantage. Therefore, unless steps are taken to provide telecom and internet access widely and cost effectively one would face accentuation.

So introducing a digital enhanced cordless telecommunication based (DECT) wireless local loop (WLL) system called CorDECT. CorDECT is India’s very own wireless local loop technology. It provides cost effective, simultaneous high quality voice and data connectivity. The CorDECT technology can provide internet access to the subscriber through the same telephone line with 70 kbps speed without the aid of a modem and the subscriber can use the telephone and surf on the net simultaneously.

Introduction

CorDECT is a state-of-the-art wireless access system that uses the ETSI DECT air interface with extensions for wireless in local loop service to deliver toll-quality voice and data simultaneously on a per user basis. CorDECT WLL is a state of art wireless access system developed indigenously by the joint efforts of IIT, Madras and Midas Communication Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Madras with support of Dept, of Telecommunication, Govt. of India. ECIL is one among the four telecom manufacturers in India to license the product. CorDECT is a simple, cost-effective wireless access system that has made a difference to millions of lives.

The CorDECT system is indeed based on the DECT standard which initially was designed for use with cordless telephones. This is not a spread spectrum approach, and instead is based on a protocol called MC-TDMA which performs both time and frequency division in order to accommodate multiple channels. [44] The distances possible between a subscriber unit and a base station are rated at 10km. Relay base stations can be used to extend this distance a further 10km. These distances may be conservative as, given favorable Line of Site and terrain; 40km has been achieved in the field. It is true that the CorDECT system de-multiplexes voice from data at the interface unit and this is one of its strong properties.

The greatest advantage of CorDECT is the elimination of the need to run a pair of wires all the way upto the subscriber’s premises. The Wireless Local Loop is free from various problems associated with cables such as digging of trenchers, large requirement of time and money and more importantly, the various line faults which are generally attributed to wired connections. New subscriber connections can be added almost instantly as it involves only authentication of the hand set through the console.

CONCLUSION

The corDECT wireless local loop system offers relatively low cost and rapid installation of telecom services in areas with even high subscriber density environments. This microcellular system relies on a modest bandwidth of 20MHz for the entire country. Two or three DECT wireless local loop systems and DECT based local area networks could coexist in the same area without interfering with one another – all operating on the same 20MHz bandwidth. The high capacity is achieved not by using low bit-rate compression techniques but with toll quality ADPCM or PCM voice coding. The microcellular system can provide ADPCM (32kbps) or PCM (64kbps) and even ISDN (128kbps) services to users. Its developers describe it as a “future proof” system.

Concrete Shell

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INTRODUCTION

A concrete shell, also commonly called thin shell concrete structure, is a structure composed of a relatively thin shell of concrete, usually with no interior columns or exterior buttresses. The shells are most commonly flat plates and domes, but may also take the form of ellipsoids or cylindrical sections, or some combination thereof. The first concrete shell dates back to the second century. The shell structure is typically found in nature as well as in classical architecture. Its efficiency is based on its curvature (single or double), which allows a multiplicity of alternative stress paths and gives the optimum form for transmission of many different load types. Shell structures predominantly resist loads on them by direct compression. That is without bending or flexure. Since most materials are more effective in compression than in bending, shell structures result in lesser thickness than flat structures. A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness.

A primary difference between a shell structure and a plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as opposed to plate’s structures which are flat. Membrane action in a shell is primarily caused by in-plane forces (plane stress), though there may be secondary forces resulting from flexural deformations. Where a flat plate acts similar to a beam with bending and shear stresses, shells are analogous to a cable which resists loads through tensile stresses. Though the ideal thin shell must be capable of developing both tension and compression. Shell structures can usually be understood as a set of beams, arches and catenaries. Man-made shell structures as used in various branches. Engineering structures and/or architectural works whose structure is defined as Thin-shell structures from around the world. Thin shell structures are uniquely suited to carrying distributed loads and find wide application as roof structures in building. Shell structures are widely used in civil, mechanical, architectural, aeronautical, and marine engineering

Various different types of steel shell structures have been used for industrial purposes; singly curved shells, for example, can be found in oil storage tanks, the central part of some pressure vessels, in storage structures such as silos, in industrial chimneys and even in small structures like lighting columns. The single curvature allows a very simple construction process and is very efficient in resisting certain types of loads. In some cases, it is better to take advantage of double curvature. Double curved shells are used to build spherical gas reservoirs, roofs, vehicles, water towers and even hanging roofs. Distributed loads due to internal pressure in storage tanks, pressure vessels or silos, or to external pressure from wind, marine currents and hydrostatic pressures are very well resisted by the in-plane behaviour of shells. Shell structures often need to be strengthened in certain problem areas by local reinforcement. Local reinforcement is also often required at connections between shell structures, such as commonly occur in general piping work and in the offshore industry. In contrast to local reinforcement, global reinforcement is generally used to improve the overall shell behaviour. In axisymmetric shells, the obvious location for the stiffeners is along selected meridians and parallel lines, creating in this way a true mesh which reinforces the pure shell structure.

CONCLUSION

The development of the design of the Sydney Opera House may probably be regarded as the first major example of a modern concert hall in which the general shapes, plus many smaller details, were radically influenced by thorough scale model testing. Sydney Opera House is a landmark of the city of Sydney. Its unique sail like architecture does not only attract serious architects, it is also eye-catching to curious tourists. This is the only architectural form in the 20thcentury that is classified as world heritage. The revolutionary design of Utzon had many problems that were unique and the solutions had to be generated from scratch. The main one was particular to Utzon’s design. The first problem was the roof.

Though the sail-like roof was eye-catching, the shapes were not defined by regular geometry and the engineers had great difficulty in defining precisely the ‘free-form’ shapes, which led to problems in calculating the loads the shells would have to carry. Utzon proposed the spherical geometry solution. Later he realised that the surface of the regular form of a sphere could be sliced to give the necessary pieces for the shells. The uniformity over a curved surface not only gave the shells well-defined shapes, but also a simple and economic process of prefabrication. This final solution for the shells, however, had an obviously different shape from the original roof design. It is the first example of the use of computer analysis to design complex shapes.

COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING

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ABSTRACT

Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer terminal using a CAD system. It includes computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided analysis (CAA), computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), material requirements planning (MRP), and computer-aided planning (CAP). Its purpose is mainly to analyze the different materials, products, their performance and quality, such as durability, stability, etc. It has many advantages like improved safety and product quality, reduced product cost, customer satisfaction, etc. and so it has many applications like used to analyze the properties of material, commercial and flight simulations, etc. It has 3 phases: pre-processing, analysis solver, post- processing of results.

CAE is mainly of 3 types: finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and Boundary Element Analysis (BEA). FEA is used to conduct static and dynamic analysis. CFD is used to optimize components for efficient fluid flow and heat transfer. BEA is used to predict noise characteristics on various systems. One of the real world examples is MEMS that is micro electro mechanical systems. It has the size of a grain of salt or the eye of a needle.

INTRODUCTION

The future success of a manufacturing enterprise is likely to be determined by the speed and efficiency with which it incorporates new technologies into its operations. The process which is currently used to engineer, or re-engineer, manufacturing systems is often ad hoc. Computerized tools are used on a very limited basis. Given the costs and resources involved in the construction and operation of manufacturing systems, the engineering process must be made more scientific. Powerful new computing environments for engineering manufacturing systems could help achieve that objective.
Today, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology contributes decisively to shortening and optimizing product development cycles in many fields of industry and research. Computer aided analysis and simulation enables our customers to assess and test the behaviour of future components, products and processes by subjecting them to a range of computer simulated physical conditions.This leads to savings in both the time and money which would have been spent on cost-intensive test runs without any loss in quality and opens up new possibilities for innovation.

Computer aided engineering (CAE) retrieves description and geometry from a computer aided manufacturing (CAD) database. Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer terminal using a CAD system. Thus software tools that have been developed to support the activities in computer analysis are considered CAE tools. CAE tools are being used, for example, to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. The term encompasses simulation, validation, and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. In the future, CAE systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision making. In regard to information networks, CAE systems are individually considered a single node on a total information network and each node may interact with other nodes on the network. CAE systems can provide support to businesses. This is achieved by the use of reference architectures and their ability to place information views on the business process. Reference architecture is the basis from which information model, especially product and manufacturing models. The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the use of computer technology within engineering in a broader sense than just engineering analysis.

CONCLUSION

CAE is an analysis entirely done on computer using CAD systems. Its purpose is to analyze different materials, products, their performance and quality such as durability, stability, endurance and/or reactivity to any possible factor that can affect the performance of the material, part, and/or the product A typical CAE process comprises of pre-processing, solving, and post-processing steps. In the pre-processing phase, engineers model the geometry and the physical properties of the design, as well as the environment in the form of applied loads or constraints. Next, the model is solved using an appropriate mathematical formulation of the underlying physics. In the post-processing phase, the results are presented to the engineer for review. The analysis of CAE consists of mainly 4 methods like finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, boundary element analysis, kinematic and dynamic analysis. It has many advantages like its cost saving and ensures customer satisfaction and improves the speed, efficiency and the quality of many products ranging from simple parts to vehicles, airplanes etc. Designs can be evaluated and refined using computer simulations. Its applications include control systems analysis, simulation of manufacturing processes like casting, moulding and die press forming, Optimization of the product or process.